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《黄帝内经》养生四大要点,饮食、起居、运动与情志!

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发表于 2019-10-13 22:29:30 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
 中医养生之道是通过各种方法颐养生命、增强体质、预防疾病,从而达到延年益寿的一种活动。那么养生有几个方面呢?《黄帝内经》提出养生有四个方面:饮食、起居、运动、情志。
 
饮食:食饮有节



养生首先强调了“调和阴阳”,饮食是人从外界环境吸取赖以生存的营养与能量的主要途径,是生命活动的基础,与人的生存息息相关。

中国的养生主要有四大派,这四派都有一个源头:易经。四大派即指道家养生、儒家养生、佛家养生、医家养生,儒家养生偏于阳,道家养生偏于阴。

就“饮”而言,中国人有三大饮:饮酒、饮茶、饮水。岐伯这里讲的“饮”是指饮酒,饮酒也要节制。饮茶也要按照“阴阳中和”的总原则,按照《黄帝内经》人分为五种体质,而茶分六种:绿茶、红茶、青茶、白茶、黄茶、黑茶。按照五行把茶分为五类,五类茶和五行一一相配,不同体质的人就可以按照五行原理选择适合的茶。

起居:起居有常



这方面主要是把握住十二时辰中的四个时辰——子午卯酉的起居。也就是半夜的11点到1点的子时、中午的11点到1点的午时、上午的5点到7点卯时、下午的5点到7点酉时。

那应该怎样起居、作息呢?先从子时说,子时是一天中最黑暗的时候,是阴气最旺盛,也就是阴气到了尽头、阳气马上要生发的时候。这个时候万籁俱静,夜深人静,到了深度睡眠的时候。子时为水,水是万物滋生的源泉,此时是元气开始生发的时候,如果这个时候还在用神不宁,劳作不息,就会干扰阴阳交合,使元气生发受到损伤。

按照中医子午流注的说法,半夜子时是胆经当令,“当令”就是当班、值班的意思,《黄帝内经》里有一句话叫“凡十一藏皆取决于胆”,就是说五脏六腑都取决于胆的生发,胆气生发起来,全身气血才能随之而起。所以,子时必须深度睡眠,注意是深度睡眠,也就是说,子时之前就是晚上11点以前必须入睡,才能保证子时的深度睡眠。

到了卯时也就是早晨的5点到7点,这个时候,天也基本上亮了,天门开了,5点醒是正常的。这个时候是大肠经当令,所以起床后要正常地排大便,把垃圾、毒素排出来。天亮是天门开,所以,这个时候地户也要开,地户就是肛门也要开,要养成早上排大便的习惯。

到了午时也就是中午11点到1点,这个时候阳气最盛,经过一上午的劳动工作,到中午时就疲惫了,觉得有点犯困。这时是心经当令,西班牙和美国的一项研究表明,早晨6点到中午12点是心脑血管病的危险期,是魔鬼时间。所以中午这个时候要睡午觉。有人说了我睡不着或者没有条件睡,那闭一会儿眼睛都有好处。最好是炼一会儿静功。

到了酉时也就是下午5点到7点,这个时候是肾经当令。肾主藏精。什么是精?人的肾精,是生命的本源,就像是水,它可以滋润万物。“精”有一个功能,当你需要什么的时候,把精调出来,就可以得到这个东西。比如你缺红细胞,精就会变现出红细胞。所以这个时候需要补充肾精,使肾水不要枯竭、不要静止。

运动:不妄作劳



“作劳”就是“劳作”、劳动工作,对养生而言就是运动,“不妄”就是不要太过分,运动量不要太过分。按照现代的说法就是不要做无氧运动,要做有氧运动。无氧运动是指人体肌肉在“缺氧”的状态下高速剧烈的运动,这种运动强度太高、运动量过大,肌肉酸痛,累得气喘吁吁、大汗淋漓、精疲力尽。

有氧运动是指人体在氧气充分供应的情况下进行的运动锻炼。有氧运动的特点就是强度低、有节奏、持续时间较长。这种运动可以提升氧气的摄取量,能更好地消耗体内多余的热量、脂肪,增强和改善心肺功能。常见的有氧运动有:走路、慢跑、游泳、骑自行车、跳健身舞、韵律操等。当然打太极拳、八段锦、五禽戏、做瑜伽。

精神:形与神俱



养生真正的上等药物是体内的精气神。精气神号称生命三宝:天有三宝日月星,地有三宝水火风,人有三宝精气神,“上药三品,精与气神”。“精”是生命的最精微的物质,“气”是生命的原始能量,“神”是生命的最高主宰。

中华文化的符号象征——太极图非常形象地描绘了精气神三者交合、相互滋生、相互助长的关系。人身三宝中,神是最重要的,神可以统领精和气,太极图是靠白色部分(神)来推动。养生最根本的要求还是会回到神与精、气的和谐交融,保持一种生生不息、生机活泼的状态。
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